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Anglo-Israelism / British Israelism / Black Messiahs / Rastafarianism
 
Credit for this research is given to Donna Kossy, author of "Kooks : A Guide to the Outer Limits of Human Belief"

THE ANGLO-ISRAELITES

     ANGLO-ISRAELISM BEGAN AS THE RAVINGS of a "harmless madman" but today has thousands of adherents, including Idahoan Randy Weaver, who shot it out with agents of the "Zionist Occupation Government" in 1992, resulting in the death of a U.S. Marshall and Weaver's son and wife." The Anglo-Israelites of various persuasions, both in England and the United States, believe that the modern Anglo-Saxons are the direct descendents of the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, and are therefore "God's Chosen People." The variations on this belief, for the most part, concern the "true" origins of Anglo-Israelites' apparent competition, the present-day Jews.
      The above-mentioned harmless madman, Richard Brothers (1757-1824), born in Newfoundland, joined the British Navy, and while at sea discovered that his wife had been living with another man; devastated, he retired at half-pay at the age of 30 and moved to London. Styling himself ''Prince of the Hebrews and Nephew of the Almighty," in 1794 Brothers published a two-volume work, A Revealed Knowledge of the Prophecies and Times, predicting the millennium would begin on November 19, 1795, and that, he would personally lead the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel back to Jerusalem. The book was popular, stimulating debate throughout England and, for Brothers, a following among its readers. Brothers announced that as a descendant of King David he was the rightful heir to the British Throne, but King George II was not amused. Six months before his announced apocalypse was to take place Brothers was committed to a lunatic asylum. His incarceration, however, didn't prevent his ideas from spreading to more respectable citizens. Anglo-Israelism might well have developed without Brothers, for the idea that England and Israel are intimately connected goes back at least to the 17th century. The more extreme English Puritans of that time believed they were God's Chosen People, the Old Testament Hebrews reincarnated, and chose appropriate biblical names for their children. In l653, "Praisegod Barebone" and other members of Cromwell's "Little Parliament" replaced the English constitution with the Old Testament Laws of Moses. Cromwell told his parliament that God's message to Israel in the 68th Psalm was addressed to them: they were chosen by God to preside over the establishment of His rule on earth.
      The Anglo-Israelites go much further than the Puritans, believing their link with Israel to be historical as well as spiritual. They regard the scholar John Wilson, who in 1840 published, "Our Israelitist Origin", as the true "Father of the Rediscovery of Israel" since he provided the Israel-obsessed Britains with a "scientific" foundation. His theory was that the modern Europeans, particularly the Anglo-Saxons, are the progeny of Scythian tribes, who couid presumably be traced to the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. Several scholars of his day embraced Wilson's theories; he was not generally thought of as a crank. But it wasn't until a certain Edward Hine discovered Wilson that his theories became the basis for a religious crusade.
      At the age of fifteen. Edward Hine had attended one of Wilson's lectures, and forever after became a crusader for British Israel. Hine's own version of Wilson's theory, which he eventually came to call "Identity." was that the British, but not the other Europeans, were the true children of Israel. The Germans had the distinction of their own biblical identity, descending from the Assyrians. Wilson. Hine, and other Anglo-Israelites of their time were not anti-Semites. They viewed Jews as their brethren under the same almighty God. In fact, Hine believed, that as soon as the rest of the British discovered their true identity as the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel, they would join the tribes of Judah and Levi (the Jews) in the Holy Land; the reunion of the 12 tribes was a precondition for the second coming of Jesus, which would soon follow.
      Later, those who hated Jews rationalized their feelings in modified, versions of the original theory. Hine paved the way for this bigotry with his extremely liberal interpretations of the bible. In time, virtually any bigotry could be justified by identifying the hated group with the various biblical enemies of Israel, such as Canaanites, Amorites, Assyrians and Jebusites.
      Hine's "Forty-Seven Identifications of the British Nation with the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel", published in 1874, correlates biblical Israel with the British Empire of his day. He singles out Jeremiah's vision, in which The God of Israel tells His children that He would save their remnant and 'bring them from the north country, and gather them from the coasts of the earth ..." (Jeremiah 31:8) "'Hear the word of the Lord, 0 ye nations, and declare it in the isles afar off ..." (Jeremiah 31:10). These vague references, most likely included in the bible to prophesy that the seed of Israel would be scattered far and wide, told a different story to Hine. His novel interpretation was that latter-day Israel must be a nation that resides on islands located to the north of Palestine. Reading deeply into other biblical passages, he concluded that this nation would be in possession of a declining international empire whose peoples are physically and culturally distinct from the Jews. This nation, of course, was Britain.
      Hine was not enamored of the non-Anglo tenants of the British Empire. He was convinced that not only the Australian Aborigines, the Maoris and the American Indians, but particularly the Irish, were on their way to extinction. The Irish, Hine reasoned, are really the Canaanites, described in the Book of Numbers, who "dwell by the sea" (Numbers 13:29), the arch-enemies of the Israelites. They, of course will be struck down, along with the rest of British-Israel's enemies.
      Hine's movement was confined to the U.K. until he embarked in 1884 on the world's first Anglo-Israelite mission, to North America. The purpose of Hine's tour was to convince North Americans they were the descendants of the tribe of Manasseh. Hine gained several disciples, including General Winfield Scott Hancock, who had been the 1880 Democratic candidate for President, losing against James A. Garfield. He visited Charles Latimer, a practitioner of dowsing, who published the magazine "International Standard", which contained rants against the metric system based on his studies of the Great Pyramid of Giza. Attempts to convince Latimer to publish a British-Israelite magazine did not succeed.
      Hine's mission, particularly among non-English speaking German and Polish immigrants in Buffalo, met with failure. The Baltic immigrants who understood Hine were unmoved by the news that the Anglo-Saxons were God's Chosen People. Hine became destitute, returned home, and died three years later.
      But the Anglo-Israelite seeds had been planted. One of the earliest American Anglo-Israelite treatises was "Two Sticks., or the Lost Tribes of Israel Discovered" by an anonymous minister in the Church of the Brethren. But it was J.H. Allen's "Judah s Sceptre and Joseph s Birthright", published in 1902, that introduced Anglo-Israel to Adventists and Independent bible students, among them Herbert W. Armstrong, who would later spread the doctrine through his Worldwide Church of God. Not until the 1920s would Anglo-Israelism capture a large audience in the U.S.
      In 1928, Howard B. Rand (1889-1991) -- who would become Anglo-Israelism's foremost crusader on this side of the Atlantic -- founded the Anglo-Saxon Federation of America, and appointed himself its National Commissioner.
      Prior to his involvement in Anglo-Israelism, Rand had been a lawyer, inventor and small businessman in his home town of Haverhill, Massachusetts. A solid citizen, Rand lent a veneer of respectability to the Anglo-Israelite cause. His contribution to the literature was considerable; after a stint as crusader and lecturer on behalf of Anglo-Israelism during the 1930s, Rand settled into his role as publisher and writer for the movement. Destiny Publishers, which he started in 1937, is still printing the newsletter Special Alert, as well as hundreds of books and pamphlets. Apparently, Rand made some effort to enter public service; in 1944. 1946. 1950 and 1952. Rand was the Prohibition Party candidate for Attorney Genera! of Massachusetts.
      One of Rand's accomplishments was to smoothly integate anti-Judaism with Anglo-Israelite ideology. His account of the history of the Jews, based on the Old Testament, begins with the separation of the tribe of Judah, who resided in the Southern Kingdom, from the rest of Israel. The Northern Kingdom, or House of Israel, was overthrown and the Israelites were carried away into captivity by the Assyrians. Meanwhile, the House of Judah was kept intact for 130 years, until decadence and rebellion compelled God to send the Babylonians to attack them. They were conquered and taken into captivity, remaining in Babylonia for 70 years. "It was at the time of the captivity of the Southern Kingdom that the term 'Jew' began to be used and it applied only to the remnant of Judah (II Kings 18:26; Jer. 41:3). " This 'remnant" returned to Jerusalem and "the Nation of the Jews came into being." Therefore, Randl claims, the Jews are descended only from the Southern Kingdom of Judah and do not constitute the whole of Israel. Furthermore, "the remnant who returned to Palestine ... intermarried with the Hittites and other Gentile people ...'' When the Temple in Jerusalem was destroyed in 70 A.D, the "Nation of the Jews" ceased to exist, but various individual jews scattered and intermarried with tribes such as the Khazars. Reasoned Rand, the people referred to as Jews today are basically frauds, if they claim to be the Israelites, God's Chosen People of the bible.
      Meanwhile, according to Rand in Destiny Publishers' "Statement of Belief," the rest of the Israelites who had been captured by the Assyrians began to migrate to the west, ending up in Europe, Scandinavia and the British Isles. They were now known as the Scutai, Sak-Geloths, Massagetae, Khumri, Cimmerians, Goths, Ostrogoths and Visigoths. It is implicit in various Destiny publications that these tribes, as opposed to the Judeans, managed to remain "intact." It never occurred to Rand to ask why the pure tribes changed their names, while impure Jews kept theirs. Be that as it may, the tribes lived in ignorance of their true identity for 2000 years. It wasn't until the End Times, which began in 1821 and will end in 2001, that "God's Kingdom people began to be identified with the Anglo-Saxon-Celtic and kindred peoples." In these latter days, the old "Gentile" order is in the process of disintegration, and "will be replaced by the restoration of the Kingdom of God on the earth," with the Anglo-Israelites at the helm.
      Most Anglo-Israelite literature takes the form of biblical interpretation; the slim evidence for identification between Britain and Israel is taken straight from the bible. Anglo-Israelites claim, however, that evidence comes not only from the bible, but also from archaeology, heraldry, ethnology and philology. You might be surprised to find out that the word "SAXON" is actually derived from "SAAC'S SONS" which was derived from "ISAAC'S SONS.'' And "BRITISH" is from "BERITH-ISH" because in Hebrew, "BERITH" means "covenant," and "ISH" means "man," and therefore, "BRITISH" really means "MEN OF THE COVENANT." Try as you may, you'll never find these root-meanings in the Oxford English Dictionary.
      Rand's Destiny publications repeatedly claim that they do not disparage other races and that the Anglo-Saxons' status as the Chosen People is not a claim of superiority, but rather a "burden" and a "responsibility," and that the Anglo-Saxons were chosen for "special service," phrases uncannily similar to "White Man's Burden.'' Despite protestations to the contrary, the literature is pervaded with sentiment against the Jews as well as arguments for racial segregation.
      Rand's post-war booklet, "Palestine: Center of World Intrigue", predicts the Jews' days are numbered. "God has declared that He will visit upon [the Jews] the type of suffering they have been instrumental in bringing upon others ... They will be numbered for the sword and will bow down to slaughter." He had calculated, based on General Allenby's capture of Jerusalem in 1917, that Armageddon was to take place in 1953, in Jerusalem. Rand thought that the post-war migration of Jews to Israel was God's round­up for execution.
      Rand is mild compared to those who see the Jews not as remnants of Judah, but as the offspring of various 'wild tribes," most often the "Mongol Chazars." R.H. Sawyer declares, in the booklet, The Jewish Question, that those who did descend from Judah disobeyed God and intermarried with Canaanites, Hittites. and other "inferior races."
      A 1985 Destiny Publications booklet authored by "Wm. Norman Saxon" entitled "The Mask of Edom", describes the International Conspiracy to hide the false identity of the Jews and the true identity of the Israelites. The Jews are actually the progeny of Esau, the bad brother of Jacob -- not Judah. Furthermore, these descendants of Esau intermarried with Hittites, and were joined by converts from the Edomites, Amalekites and Canaanites. "...these Shelanite-Jebusite Canaanites who returned to Jerusalem with the remnant of real Judaites from Babylon, and who took over and corrupted the nation of the Jews, were but a small part of the Babylonian conspirators who had palmed themselves off as the Diaspora or Dispersion of the Jews.'"
      Eventually, "Babylon became the real headquarters of Judaism. The Jews' masquerade as the LORD'S chosen people is undoubtedly the greatest hoax in history. This is the basis of the anti-God conspiracy ... If [the Jews] could foist themselves off on the world as Israel, their grandiose ambitions for world dominion would be greatly enhanced ..." Saxon goes on to emphasize the inferior pedigree of the Jews, quoting from Lothrop Stoddard, author of the 1926 treatise, The Pedigree of Judah. Professor Stoddard's choice of words suggest vermin, as did the 1938 Nazi propaganda film, Der Ewige Jude, which intersplices footage of Jews with swarming rats.

      "Lured to the Khazaria as to the Promised Land, Jewry pushed northward from Asia into southeastern Europe -- swarming in by the hundred thousand, by sea, by river, and by mountain trail ... This migration involved sweeping racial changes. In the first place, Jewry's slow progress through the Armenian ond Caucasian highlands implied a further admixture and strengthening of the Armenoid at the expense of the Semitic element. Then, once in Khazaria, the extensive inter-marriage with the converted Khazars resulted in a further influx of Turkish Mongoloid blood..."

      Saxon's obsession with racial impurity goes further than Rand, but nowhere near as far as Jonathan Ellsworth Perkins, who claims in "Jesus Was Not a Jew" that the Son of God is Anglo-Saxon.
      In yet another variation, the Anglo-Saxons are shown to be direct descendants of the "Hyksos," or the Shepherd Kings." According to Worth Smith, the author of a 1934 book on the Great Pyramid of Egypt, the Hyksos were the first believers in the One True God. the builders of the Egyptian Pyramids, and, later, the twelve tribes of Israel. Smith presents measurements within the Great Pyramid that correspond to biblical references and constitute, "overwhelming proof" of the relationship between the Hyksos and Israel. Later in the book Smith reveals that the Great Pyramid foretold (among other things) the outbreak of World War One, specifically England's entry into it. Smith's imaginative readings of the links between pyramidology and English history lead to his breathless conclusion that, "... it is a definitely established truth to informed and discerning minds that the Anglo-Saxon (the people of the British Empire and the United States of America) is the direct blood-descendant of the mighty Hyksos!" And furthermore, this truth is encoded within the Great Seal of these fair United States of America, which depicts an "unfinished" pyramid -- missing its apex stone. All this leads to Smith's rapturous conclusion:

      "But of far greater importance to all men is another discovery of kindred nature, a gem of supernal wisdom which gleams forth from the exhibit cited like a lone planet thru a small rift in the storm-clouds that obscure all else on a dismal night. It is this: both the Great Pyramid and the Great Seal of the United States of America emblazon in the understanding mind the sublime allegory of the builders' error in that mystical "house not built with hands, eternal in the heavens," as featured very prominently in the Holy Bible, the Great Light, in numerous places, Jesus the Christ being fhe "Stone that the builders rejected".

      Despite their belief that they were God's Chosen, Rand and his successors did not secede from society at large. Instead, they sought to make their views acceptable to mainstream Christianity.
     On the other hand, Dr. Joseph Jeffers (1898-1988) and his flock, variously named "Kingdom Temple," "Kingdom of Yahweh," and "Yahweh's New Kingdom," have never shied away from cultish practices, and on several occasions courted infamy. They subscribe to Anglo-Israelism, but also to "Yahwism," which holds that The Lord, God of Israel is not just plain "God," that He has a name, "Yahweh," that his son also had a name, "Yahoshua," and that Yahweh and his son are very particular that you address them by their names.
      Jeffers, who began preaching Yahwism in the 1930's, claims to have been the first minister in America to do so. He points out, however, in his pamphlet "Yahweh, Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow," that:

      "The Kingdom of Yahweh is not a new organization. It is the continuation of Yahweh's original Kingdom, which was covenanted with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; later continued by David and Solomon. After becoming disorganized under the reign of Solomon's sons, Jereboam and Rhe-aboarn, it was re-established when the Master of Justice, or Messiah, was born. Toward the end of his lifetime, Yahweh then promised that in the "end of the Age" or aeon, or approximately 2068 years, His Kingdom would be re-established again. I believe that the 20th Century is the END OF THE AGE."

      This is what Jeffers calls "The Aquarian Age"; indeed, his Kingdom Voice newsletters reflect a New Age flavor, containing channeled messages from Yahweh along with an obsession with naturopathic health cures that still seems to enchant the Identity crowd.
      Jeffers fancied himself a prophet, a distinction that he alone deserved because of his first-name intimacy with the Creator.
      
      "The preachers today have lost the art of prophecy because they have lost contact with YAHWEH. They preach in the names of Baal. How can the blind lead the blind? In the Old Testament alone, the translators were guilty 6,823 times of forgery, whey they substituted 'The Lord" and "God" for the proper and sacred Name of YAHWEH. In Genesis alone, the personal Name YAHWEH occurs 156 times." (Kingdom of Yahweh, "The True Name.")

      Jeffers boasted of a 98% accuracy rate on his predictions; in July of 1962, he prophesied the assassination of President Kennedy, only one of many dire predictions.

      "Nearly four years before it took place, we predicted the day and hour that Hitler would come into power ... For years we have given the weather-conditions all over the country. We have told of droughts, floods, famine, hurricanes and earthquakes, and we have told where they would take place ... The late Dr. Helene Jeffers announced the coming assassination of Mahatma Gandhi six months before it happened". (Quoted in the November 25, 1963 Phoenix News-Gazette.)

      As with his fellow Anglo-Israelites, Jeffers taught that various odd groups -- including Native Americans -- are direct descendents of the Hebrews, His tract, "The Indians worshipped Yahweh", based on a 1775 British book by James Adair entitled "The History of the American Indians," contains very good examples of the kind of logic involved in arguing the Anglo-Israelite case:

     "We know from what Yahweh has told us that the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel actually did not disappear, but became the Anglo-Saxon, Celtic, Scandinavian and kindred peoples. The Tribe of Dan, for instance, left its mark wherever it went. For example, DANmark, DarDANelles, DANube, LonDAN, SweDAN, etc. were all named by the people of the tribe of Dan.
     Many other peoples descended from the Hebrews ... The Japanese and Chinese, Yahweh says, actually came from the sons and daughters of Lot ...When Eve seduced Adam, she gave birth to a white child who took a wife from neighboring people. They, in turn, had offspring who left fhe tribes of Yahweh because they knew they were different and they started out for another land. They journeyed and settled where the Americas are today."


      Adair had lived with American Indians and. like many in his day, interpreted their practices in the only manner he knew. Biblically.

      "As the Israelites were divided into TRIBES, and had chiefs over them, so the Indians divided themselves: each tribe forms a little community within the nation -- and as the nation hath its particular symbol, so hath each tribe the badge from which it is denominated ...
      By a strict., permanent, divine precept, the Hebrew nation were ordered to worship at Jerusalem, the true and living God, and who by the Indians is styled "Yohewah' ...


      If Jeffers" teachings are bizarre, his life and career are ever, more so. Jeffers was the sixth of 15 children brn to a poor railroad worker in Roanoke, Alabama. He was ordained as a Baptist minister in 1918, but began his career as a "pulpit clown," with a natural flair for theatrics. He later became a charismatic evangelist, travelling widely and always attracting attention; he was shot at on one tour, on another his evangelical tents were set afire. As if this wasn't enough, police blamed a murder on the emotional upset caused by one of his meetings. Jeffers no doubt had intimations that he was destined for higher things.
      Breaking with the Baptists in 1935, Jeffers formed Kingdom Temple, Inc. in California, to jump-start his career as a prophet. During the rise of National Socialism Jeffers was accused of pro-Nazi sentiments. He and his wife Joy honeymooned in Europe and were entertained "for some time" in Berlin. "[Jeffers] went along in a taxi as a spectator when the Nazi legions invaded Czechoslovakia," reported the American Weekly.
      In 1943 Jeffers announced that he was, in effect, Christ. Though married, he sought to fulfill prophecy by taking a pretty young acolyte named Helen Veborg to the desert to become the mother of his "sacred child." Strangely, Jeffers chose Florida as the destination of his desert pilgrimage. Jeffers explained later in court that a drought was soon to transform Florida into a desert. Joy, his unhappy wife, followed them to Florida, where she sued and won her divorce from Christ. According to the June, 1945 story in The American Weekly, she was awarded the family car, "a raky eight-cylinder job which had been converted to butane and was referred to by the papers as the Golden Chariot of Kingdom Come." Nonetheless, Jeffers and his followers were directed from heaven, to "join with the chariot." Following heavenly advice they stole the car. Heaven did not intervene when Jeffers was convicted of the theft and handed a four-year prison sentence.
      While Jeffers was imprisoned, his 5,000 followers paid $60,000 for a 32-room mansion with five chauffeur-driven cars and a house full of servants, preparing for the "Son of the Creator's" release from prison. Soon after his release, however, Jeffers violated his parole, and, despite his divinity, was forced to serve more time in prison.
      The flock eventually settled in a bona fide desert, Arizona; today they reside there under the name "Yaweh's New Kingdom," despite Jeffers' earthly demise in 1988. The October, 1992 issue of Kingdom Voice contains health advice, messages from Yahweh. documentation on Yahweh's name, as well as the requisite items about End Times. If nothing else, the Yahwists are true survivors; they roll with the times.
      Anglo-Israelite and Yahwist teachings are now supplemented by "Secrets About Yah­weh's Spaceships" and "'Secrets About Lost Civilizations". Channeled messages from Yahweh continue to exhort people to "GET OFF THE COASTS." Yahweh warns that "New York City will be completely destroyed, a.s well as Miami. Los Angeles and San Francisco!"
      Although Anglo-lsraelism, Christian Identity, and Yahwism aren't exactly household words, they were thrust into public consciousness when Anglo-Israelite Randy Weaver was caught in a shootout with Federal Agents over firearms violations. With his son and wife killed by snipers, and his young daughters armed with sidearms, Weaver held the federal agents and their "New World Order" at bay for over a week. In the meantime, his belief that he was fighting off evil "Zionist Occupational Government"' (ZOO) robots was fueled by the agents' murderous tactics.
      Weaver's supporters see the siege of his cabin near Sandpoint, Idaho, as the escalation of a holy war between God's Chosen (white separatists) and the dreaded Zionist Occupational Government. Soon, Federal troops will be back to arttempt to force them to accept the Mark of the Beast, a computer chip planted in the brain or on the hand. But through their faith in Great White Yahweh, they will resaist the Mark of the Beast, and will be saved by Yahoshua (Jesus) when he returns in a fury.


BLACK MESSIAHS

       When he was providing reefer toHep cats and jazz men in Harlem, Malcolm Little was known as "Detroit Red." In prison, the quick-witted cynic was nicknamed "Satan." Finally, directed to the teachings of Elijah Muhammad by his brother and sister, Malcolm was soon to embrace the clean life, release from prison, and yet another name. Elijah Muhammad, Messenger of Allah, decreed that "X" would replace Malcolm's "slave name," "Little."
      Messianic religions almost universally offer new names and new diets to the downtrodden and displaced. The pantheon of North American Black Messiahs, including Noble Drew All of Moorish Science, Elijah Muhammad of Nation of Islam and Yahweh Ben Yahweh of The Nation of Yahweh, provide all this and more. A convert begins his or her new life with not only a new name and different eating habits, but also a genealogy, exotic rituals and colorful clothing: in short, a new identity.
      Religious groups providing a radical break for "the so-called Negro" in America emerged as early as the 1920s. They espoused a complete rejection of Christianity, white domination and the history that supported it. All of them cast off the word "Negro" and replaced it instead with terms such as "Moorish-American," "Asiatic," "Hebrew" and "Nubian."
      They attacked Christianity because it provided salvation in the next life, but not in this one; it favored "Pie in the Sky" over Justice and Progress. The lure of the bible was so strong that some black messiahs included it in their teachings. Be that as it may, "The White Man's Religion," had to be replaced with "The natural religion of the Black Man." For some, this was Islam, and for others it was Judaism, both altered almost beyond recognition, to fit the special circumstances of African Americans in the 20th century.

MOORISH SCIENCE

      The Moorish Science Organization of Noble Drew Ali (1886-1929) was the first Black Islamic group in North America. How Islam, completely foreign to most Americans at that time, inserted itself into the black imagination, is still somewhat of a mystery, though several authors provide clues.
      Clifton E. Marsh, historian of Black Islam, dates the black discovery of Islam in 1851, "when a West Indian scholar, Edward Wilmont Blyden emigrated to Monrovia, advocating Islam as a "qualitative change from Christianity."
      Islamic expert Peter Lamborn Wilson suggests that it all began with Black Freemasonry. Black Masonic lodges had existed clandestinely at least since the Revolution as "Chapter of the Eastern Star," "Order of the Golden Circle and Knights of the Invisible Colored Kingdom". Early in their history, the white Masons had borrowed some ideas and symbols from Islam, though their connection with the mainstream of this eastern religion is undoubtedly tenuous. This, however, didn't stop the Shriners, the "Ancient, Arabic Order Nobles of the Mystic Shrine," founded in 1877 by Scottish Rite Masons, from parading publicly in exotic headgear; the fez was to become their trademark. In his article, "Shoot-Out at the Circle 7 Koran," Wilson elaborates on the Oriental veneer of the Shriners, some of which was later borrowed by Moorish Science: "They" concocted a legend claiming initiations from a Grand Shaykh of Mecca, honors from the Ottoman sultan Selim III, a charter from Adam Weishaupt of the Bavarian Illuminati. and links with the Bektashi Sufi Order. They' bestowed the title 'Noble' on themselves, wore fezzes, displayed a crescent moon and star with Egyptian' ornaments (including the Great Pyramid), and founded lodges called 'Mecca,' 'Medina,' 'Al Koran,' etc."
      Wilson also introduces evidence which strengthens the connection between Freemasonry and Black Islam, and may point to the real origin of the ideas of Noble Drew Ali: "During the Great Columbian Exhibition in Chicago (1893) ... American blacks claiming initiation from visiting Moslem dignitaries founded the Ancient Egyptian Arabic Order of Nobles of the Shrine ('Black Shriners") ... Certain photographs exist of Noble Drew Ali in Egyptian Shriner gear; even his famous Napoleonic pose is Masonic, as are his title, headgear, and other favorite symbols...."
      The various legends of Noble Drew Ali's origins tell us much about the followers of Moorish Science, as well as the mind of Noble Drew Ali. Derived from Ali's own claims, these legends explain how B. Timothy Drew, born in North Carolina to ex-slaves in 1886, was transformed into the religious prophet Noble Drew Ali, founder of Moorish Science. The story goes that Drew was raised by Cherokee Indians and later ran away with gypsies. One day. after he heard a voice say repeatedly, "If you go I will follow." he ran away to Egypt. Sources disagree, however, on whether he went there as a merchant seaman, a railway expressman, or a magician in a traveling circus.
      According to Wilson's account of the legend, while in Egypt, Drew met "the last priest of an ancient cult of High Magic who led him in [to the great Pyramid] blindfolded, and abandoned him. When Drew found his way out unaided, the magus recognized him as a potential adept and offered him initiation. ... He received the name Sharif ('Noble'!) Abdul Ali." Apparently the religious scripture, The Circle 7 Koran, was written while he was in Egypt. Then in 1913, back in Newark, New Jersey, Ali had a dream in which he was ordered to found a religion "for the uplifting of fallen mankind." Wilson cites another source who places Noble Drew Ali's pilgrim­age in Mecca rather than Egypt, though Marsh says he went to Morocco, where he received a commission from the King to teach Islam to North American Blacks.
      One point that all sources agree on is that 1913 was the year thai Noble Drew Ali first appeared in Newark, New Jersey, armed with his homespun, 64-page holy scripture, The Circle 7 Koran. There, he would establish the Moorish National and Divine Movement -- soon renamed the Moorish Science Temple -- claiming to be a prophet ordained by Allah Himself. Circle 7 Koran in hand, Ali began teaching that American '"Negroes'" are really descended from the biblical Moabites who later inhabited Morocco, and also from Ham, the father of the Canaanites. Thus Negroes would more accurately be designated "Moorish-Americans," descended from the ancient Moors. He didn't stop with Negroes, however. He also taught that the ancient Moors' territory extended to Atlantis, and even America, so that Native Americans are also "Asiatics" or "Moors."
      Allah's prophet preached that the once-iilustrious but sinful Moors were stripped of their nationality by our white founding fathers:

      "Through sin and disobedience every nation has suffered slavery, due to the fact that they honored not the creed and principles of their Forefathers. That is why the nationality of the Moors was taken away from them in 1774 and the word negro, black and colored, was given to the Asiatics of America who were of Moorish descent, because they honored not the principles of their mother and father, and strayed after the gods of Europe of whom they knew nothing."[from The Circle 7 Koran]

      The ancient Moors' modern-day children can find true emancipation only by attaining the forgotten knowledge of their true heritage, and by converting to Islam. Christianity is for Europeans, but Islam is for "Asiatics." Ali taught that one day soon, a star and crescent moon will appear in the sky. "This betoken[s] the arrival of the day of the Asiatics and the destruction of the Europeans."
      Membership in the Moorish Science Temple was restricted to "Asiatics", which for some reason included those of Celtic descent. These white members, undoubtedly few in number, were known as "Persians." (Wilson is the only author to state that some whites were allowed membership.) New members were required to affirm their desire to follow Noble Drew Ali, and, pay an initiation fee of $1. All were given a "Free National Name," either "El" or "Bey" and a "Nationality Card," which they believed would impress the "Europeans," i.e. their white neighbors.
      This pocket sized card contained the symbols of the Star and Crescent, clasped hands and the number "7" enclosed in a circle. It proclaimed that its bearer honored "all the Divine Prophets, Jesus. Mohammed. Buddha and Confucius", and pronounced upon him "the blessings of the God of our Father, Allah." The bearer was identified as "a Moslem under the Divine Laws of the Holy Koran of Mecca, Love, Truth, Peace, Freedom, and Justice," and concluded, "I AM A CITIZEN OF THE UNITED STATES."
      The new "Asiatic" identity consisted or more than just an identification card and new name. The convert was actually now a member of a nation, and along with this went responsibilities and a way of life. Though their current citizenship was in the United States, Morocco was seen as the original homeland. They honored the Moroccan flag, red with a five-pointed green star in the center, which they claimed was at least 10,000 years old.
      The dress requirements were strict. Men were to wear a red fez with a black tassel at all times, because the "fez is the first head dress worn by man and the turban the first head dress worn by woman. The fez and turban symbolize thar knowledge is embedded within them and these wraps protect the wearer." The turbans were optional, though women were required to wear long pants or long dresses to their shoe tops.
      The Asiatic food regimen was also strict. Diet was vegetarian; smoking, drinking, straightening of hair and cosmetics were forbidden. As for recreation, that too was contrary to Moorish-American religious life. Sports, games, movies and secular dancing were all discouraged.
      Though they were ostensibly Islamic, the Moorish-Americans' understanding of Islam was limited to their garments, their food and their prophet's teachings through The Circle 7 Koran. It teaches that: Jesus is a prophet of Allah who was sent to earth to save the Israelites "from the iron-hand oppression of the pale-skin nations of Europe"; Jesus was reincarnated into the Prophet Mohammed; angels are thoughts of Allah manifested in human flesh, who carry messages to all nations -- Noble Drew Ali is one of them; the Garden of Eden is in Mecca, and Adam and Eve went to Asia; angels (Asiatics) guard the Holy City of Mecca from unbelievers; the parents of the angels are also the parents of Moorish-Americans.
      This new belief system and way of life brought new confidence, and then over-con­fidence to the zealous Moorish-Americans. In Chicago, members, conspicuous in their fezzes, began accosting "the white enemy" in public, displaying their nationality cards and proclaiming that in the name of their prophet, Noble Drew Ali, they were now free of European domination. This did not exactly endear them to the police, and some distur­bances developed. Ali ordered his followers to stop flashing their cards at "Europeans."
      The Moorish Science Temple continues to this day, but it is mostly forgotten now, eclipsed by Nation of Islam and the like. But during its heyday in the 1920s, it is estimated to have had up to 30,000 members in Chicago, Detroit, Harlem. Pittsburgh. Philadelphia. Kansas City, West Virginia, Brooklyn, Richmond, South Carolina and Georgia. It was most successful in Chicago, where many Moorish-American businesses thrived, including grocery stores, restaurants and variety stores. The Moorish-Americans had taken Noble Drew Airs maxim --"A beggar people cannot develop the highest in them, nor can they attain a genuine enjoyment of the spiritualities of life" -- to heart.
      Shortly before his death in 1929, the prophet began to designate power to underlings and some of them began to exploit their new-found power. Their greed led them to the practice of selling herbs, magic amulets and literature to the unwary membership, at high prices. They were successful in these enterprises and became wealthy.
      While Noble Drew Ali attempted to put an end to this practice, Sheik Claude Greene, described as "a small-time politician and former butler of the philanthropist Julius Rosen-wald," subsequently challenged his leadership. Greene removed all the furniture from Ali's office and declared himself Grand Sheikh of the Moorish Science Temple. This caused a split in the movement, culminating in a violent conflict at the Unity Club in Chicago, where Greene was stabbed and shot to death. Even though Noble Drew Ali was reported to be somewhere other than Chicago at the time, the police arrested him and charged him with murder. He was released on bond, and died a lew weeks later under suspicious circumstances.
      Some say Ali died from injuries inflicted by the police during imprisonment. Others that he was killed by followers of Sheik Claude Greene. Still others maintain thai he died of "natural causes."
      Just a year later, both Wali Fard Muhammad and John Givens El, Noble Drew Ali's chauffeur, claimed to be Noble Drew Ali, reincarnated. The chauffeur claimed that sometime after the prophet's death, he was working on his car. He fainted, and his eyes were examined. "He had the sign of the star and crescent in his eyes and they knew right then he was the prophet reincarnated into his chauffeur."
      At least two factions developed based on these claims: those who believed the chauf­feur remained Moorish-Americans; those who believed Fard became part of the Nation of Islam.

NATION OF ISLAM

      Nation of Islam began much like Moorish Science, as an obscure cult known only to its members. It was suddenly thrust into the national consciousness in the late 50s and early 60s, when Malcolm X became its chief spokesman. Much has been written about Nation of Islam, and even more about Malcolm X. But it's evident that very few outside the group have ever seen the writings of Elijah Muhammad, or examined the group's belief system in detail. There has been more emphasis on the group's "black nationalism" than their religious beliefs, which may be too zany for the average social scientist to take seriously.
      Nation of Islam is Moorish Science with bite; there is much more emphasis on explaining, denouncing and separating from the white "devils." Moorish Science membership cards had proclaimed: I AM A CITIZEN OF THE UNITED STATES," but Nation of Islam advocates establishment of a separate black nation.
      If Noble Drew Ali was a mysterious character, W. D. Fard. also known as Wali Fard Muhammad, was even more so. Fard, a light-colored, oriental-looking man. appeared in Detroit's black ghetto in 1930, identifying himself as me reincarnation of Noble Drew Ali. Working as a peddler selling exotic silks and clothing door-to-door, he claimed that his silks were similar to the garb worn by people in his "home country." This piqued the curiosity of his ghetto consumers, who became a captive audience to his preaching of Islam, the "natural religion for the biack man."
      One source reports that Fard had taken over a Detroit Moorish-Science Temple and renamed it the Lost-Found People of Islam. This story, for some reason, is denied vociferously by the Nation of Islam.
      Fard's claims, as well as the legends surrounding him, rival those of his predecessor. He reported that he was born in Mecca of royal ancestry, from the same tribe as the prophet Mohammed. Light skinned as he was., the people believed him. Others believed that he had studied at the University of California and in England, training for a diplomatic career in the "Kingdom of Hejaz." Still others believed that Fard was a Jamaican whose father was a Syrian Moslem. Another story had it that Fard had been aPalestinian racial agitator. A reporter for "The New Crusader", a Chicago paper, once described Fard as "a Turkish-born Nazi ageni [who] "worked for Hitler in World War II."
      The official Nation of Islam story is that Fard was bom in Mecca in 1877, the offspring of a black father and white mother. This enabled him "to go among both black and white with­out being discovered or recognized." He could speak 16 languages and write in 10 of them, knew 150,000 years of world history and "knew the beginning and end of all things." He arrived in the "Wilderness of North America" in 1910, and was the teacher, not the follower, of not only Noble Drew Ali, but also black religious leaders Father Divine and Daddy Grace.
      Only a few years after establishing his temple, Fard's sect, like Moorish Science before him, was subject to internal strife, ending in murder. One of Fard's followers was arrested and the Detroit police dubbed it a case of "human sacrifice" and "voodoo murder." The media picked up on this and labeled Fard's fledgling group a "Voodoo Cult" with Fard as "Chief of the Voodoos." The murder suspect was declared insane and committed to an asylum. But police pursued the elusive Fard for some seven months. When they finally caught up with him, he was ordered to leave Detroit, only to be arrested again shortly after his arrival in Chicago, for "disorderly conduct." This is the last official document on Fard.
     Until his final disappearance in 1933 or 1934. Fard taught his heritage-starved audience about their own "glorious history," utilizing various history texts, the bible and the Koran, as well as his own "Secret Ritual of the Nation of Islam", and "Teachings for the Lost-Found Nation in a Mathematical Way" written in his own symbolic language. Fard's formidable mission was to "wake the Dead Nation in the West, to teach them the truth about the white man, and to prepare them for Armageddon." His version of the Battle of Armageddon had the war between the good (black) Muslims and the evil (white) Christians, taking place in "Har-Magedon," "the wilderness of North America."
      Fard left as mysteriously as he had appeared. The official Nation of Islam story is that he was "ordered out of the country" and flew to Mecca. Rumors circulated that he was last seen aboard a ship bound for Europe, where he met with foul play at the hands of either the police or dissident followers. But it may well be, as quoted in a recent, issue of an orthodox Muslim newspaper, that Fard is alive and living in California as an orthodox Muslim.
      Fard's disappearance caused two factions to develop. One group, which remained in obscurity, asserted that Fard, though a prophet, was mortal. The other, led by Elijah Muhammad, held that Fard was actually "Allah in Person."
      Elijah Muhammad -- born Elijah Poole, one of 13 children of a Baptist minister/share­cropper in Georgia -- had been one of Fard's first ministers. As part, of the massive emigration of southern blacks to northern industrial cities, Elijah ended up in Detroit as an auto worker. Some time after losing his job, he attended one of Fard's sermons. Muhammad circulated the story that he told Fard. "I know who you are, you're God himself." Fard answered, "That's right, but don't tell it now. It is not yet time for me to be known."
      As Fard's successor. Elijah Muhammad moved to Chicago to establish Temple #2, the new headquarters. He began teaching that Fard was "God in person", to be worshipped as a deity, with prayer and sacrifice. Elijah Muhammad emphasized that Christianity, the white man's religion, teaches that God is a "spook," while Islam, the natural religion for the black man, teaches that God is a man; evidently, this teaching had great appeal. In no time Elijah Muhammad was leading the Nation of lslam with a firm hand, calling himself Allah's "Prophet" and 'Messenger."
      If W.D. Fard's teachings have bite, then Elijah Muhammad's have fangs. Muhammad developed Fard's ideas in astounding detail, accounting for the slate of the world as the product of the evil white race and its hold on world power. He taught that "the Original Man is the Black Man," that white people are die result of a genetic plot, and have only been around for six thousand years. The "so-called Negro" came from "The Tribe of Shabazz" within the Asiatic Nation, who originated in Africa when a great explosion divided the earth from the moon 60 trillion years ago. Members of this eminent tribe were the first explorers of Earth, and the first inhabitants of the Nile Valley. Furthermore, they authored not only the bible but the Koran.
      Elijah Muhammad's main text for the dissemination of his teachings, "Message to the Blackmail in America", tells the story of the "grafting" of the evil white race. The woeful story7 begins 6800 years ago, when Yacub, an evil scientist from Mecca, angered the Meccan authorities and was exiled, along with 59,999 of his followers, to an island in the Aegean Sea. While in exile, he plotted his revenge. He would enslave the Tribe of Shabazz by breeding an evil white race that would rule over them for 6,000 years. He created the Brown Race from the Black using the old biblical method of infanticide."... He ordered the nurses to kill all black babies... by pricking the brains with a sharp needle as soon as the black child's head is out of its mother. ... When there was a birth of a brown baby, the nurse would come and make much ado over it, and, would tell the mother that she had given birth to a holy child and that she would nurse it for the next six weeks, for her child was going to be a great man..." Using the same method, 200 years later, he created the Red Race from the brown, and 200 years after that the yellow Race from the Red. Finally, after 600 years, his work was completed; he had created the White Devils.

      "The Yakub-made devils were really pale white, with really blue eyes; which we think are the ugliest of colors for a human eye."

      These hateful creatures were exiled in "West Asia" (Europe), and became savages, remaining in that condition for 2000 years.

      "They lost all knowledge of civilization. The Lord, God of Islam, taught me that some of them tried to graft themselves back into the black nation, but they had nothing to go by. A few were lucky enough to make a start, and got as far as what you call the gorilla. In fact, all of the monkey family are from this 2,000 year history of the white race in Europe."

      After 2000 years Allah raised Moses to civilize the white race, who found his job quite difficult. After the process of civilization, the White Devils fulfilled Yakub's vengeance by enslaving the tribe of Shabazz. Fortunately, the end of this sad chapter of history is now in sight. The six thousand year white rule ended in 1914. We are now living in the post-1914 "Years of Grace," which will last until the chosen of Allah will lie resurrected from the mental death imposed upon them by the white man. Achieving this resurrection was the holy mission of Elijah Muhammad. Messenger of Allah and Spiritual Leader of the Lost-found Nation in the West. The Messenger of Allah left this earth in 1975, but he may yet accomplish his mission.
      Elijah Muhammad had chosen his son, W. D. Muhammad, to take over the leadership following his death. Soon after, Nation of Islam was officially disbanded and W.D. Muhammad and his followers embraced a more orthodox version of Islam, much as Malcolm X did after his break with Elijah Muhammad. But Louis Farrakhan, who had succeeded Malcolm X as the group's spokesman, soon resurrected the old Nation of Islam.
      Elijah Muhammad is alive and well in the hearts of the followers of Louis Farrakhan. And not just in their hearts; he flies to earth from time to time aboard a giant flying saucer, occasionally summoning Farrakhan to receive his instructions. So claims the notorious Minister Louis Farrakhan.
      Louis Farrakhan didn't become a household word in America until 1984, when he was accused of making anti-Semitic remarks. But he had been the charismatic leader of the new Nation of Islam for years, leading 50,000 followers. Born Louis Eugene Walcott in 1933, Farrakhan had been a trained musician and calypso singer nicknamed "The Charmer." He "took his X" -- becoming Louis X -- when he joined Nation of Islam in his home town of Boston, and soon became a close associate of Malcolm X. Later renamed Farrakhan by Elijah Muhammad, Louis X became a leader in the sect, though he didn't graduate to chief spokesman until the assassination of Malcolm X.
      Farrakhan s current Chicago-based group continues the legacy of the old Nation of Islam. He advocates black separatism, as his predecessor did. although the new black homeland is no longer America, but Africa; his newspaper, The Final Call, implores the resurrection of the spirit of Marcus Garvey.
      Farrakhan's devotion to even die the most obscure teachings of Elijah Muhammad is reflected in his belief in flying saucers as Ezekiel's vision:

      "The Great Wheel which many of us see in the sky today is not so much a wheel as one may think in such terns but rather a place made like wheel. The like of this wheel-like plane was never seen before. You cannot build one like it and get the same results. ... His vision of the wheel ... reveals just where end how the decisive battle would take place (in the sky).
      ... Today, we see the white race preparing for the sky battle to determine who shall remain and rule this earth, black or white.
      ... The present wheel-shaped plane known as the Mother of Planes, is one-half mile by a half miile and is the largest mechanical man-made object in the sky. It is a small human planet made for the purpose of destroying the present world of the enemies of Allah. ...
      The small circular-made planes called flying saucers, which are so much talked of being seen, could be from this Mother Plane. This is only one of the things in store for the white man's evil world. Believe it or not! This is to warn you and me to fly to our own God and people."


      Elijah Muhammad has evidendy taken residence on that Mother Ship in order to direct the proceedings that will end the 6,000 year rule of white devils.
      On October 24. 1989 Louis Farrakhan held a press conference in which he detailed his September, 1985 vision that he was carried to a mountain in Tepotzlan, Mexico, and then to Elijah Muhammad's mother ship:

      "As we reached the top of the mountain, a Wheel, or what you call an unidentified flying object, appeared at the side of the mountain and called to me to come up into the Wheel ...
      A beam of light came from the Wheel and I was carried up on this beam of light into the Wheel ...
      As the Wheel lifted off from the side of the mountain, moving at a terrific speed, I know I was being transported to the Mother Wheel, which is a human-built planet - a half-mile by a half-mile that the Honorable Elijah Muhammad had taught us of for nearly 60 years. ... I was escorted by the pilot to a door and admitted into a room ...
      At the center of the ceiling was a speaker and through the speaker I heard the voice of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad speaking to me as clearly as you are hearing my voice this morning.
      ... [Mr. Muhammad] began to speak to me. He said, ''President Reagan has met with the Joint Chiefs of Staff to plan a war. I want you to hold a press conference in Washington, D.C., and annouce their plan and say to the world that you got the information from me on the Wheel."


      Minister Farrakhan realized that Elijah Muhammad was referring to a war planned against Moammar Qaddafi. And so he traveled to Libya to warn Qaddafi of his vision. But this was only the beginning. The real war was to be against the black people of America, and himself, Louis Farrakhan. The vision that the Honorable Elijah Muhammad gave me from the Wheel in 1985, is now manifested fully in that President Bush has met with his Joint Chiefs of Staff, the chairman of which is a Black man, General Colin Powell, and again, they too have planned a war. ... most importantly, against the rise of Black youth and Black people in America." Later. Farrakhan stated that "As [Qaddafi) was to Reagan. Farrakhan is to Bush."
      The September 8. 1992 issue of The Final Call could be mistaken for a supermarket tabloid with its headline. ''UFOs and the NEW WORLD ORDER" emblazoned on its cover. The accompanying story reveals a government plot to institute a New World Order which may involve alien beings and so-called UFOs, that are, in fact, created by the government. An interview with Nario Hayakawa. a "UFO researcher" reveals the high order conspiracy:

     "The U.S. government, behind a veil of secrecy, is testing these aerial devices or select pilots may be receiving instructions (from alien beings) on how to fly these disk shaped crafts developed by the government for the purpose of staging a fake extraterrestrial event in the very near future, perhaps around 1995. ... Secret international banking groups and other global secret groups are going to forcefully eliminate international borders and create some kind of controlled society. ... The most amazing weapon they will use to do this will be the extraterrestrial threat..."

ANSAARU ALLAH COMMUNITY

      Outfitted in white gowns and skull caps, the members of Ansaaru Allah Community look like nice, religious people with concrete links to Islam and Africa. The bespectacled man sitting outside of a neighborhood transit station proffering literature and incense to Boston's black community is cordial to curious passers-by, both black and white. He gives every appearance of representing a wholesome alternative to ghetto life. A closer look however, reveals that the literature -- all penned by leader and founder Isa Muhammad -- isn't just about Islam or black pride: it is also about denouncing the subhuman, pale, blue-eyed Amorite devils who are descended from lepers and mate with dogs, and. more importantly, about the coming apocalypse in the year 2000.
      Isa Muhammad, who has begun to call himself As Sayyid Al Imaam Issa Al Haadi Al Mahdi, founded the group in 1970. He claims to be the great-grandson of Sudanese leader Muhammad Ahmed Ibn Abdullah (1845-1885). whom the Ansaars believe to be a true "Successor" or "Mahdi" in the line of Prophet Muhammad. In no uncertain terms they oppose the line of successorship accepted by Orthodox Sunni Muslims.
      Isa likes to keep his origins shrouded in mystery, but his followers say that he was born in 1945 -- exactly 100 years after his "great-grandfather" -- in Omdurman, Sudan and was given the name Isa at birth; his full Sudanese name is Isa al Haadi al-Mahdi. They concede that he also has an American birth certificate under the name "Dwight York," explaining that Dwight was his nickname and that York was his mother's family name. The official story continues that Isa emigrated from the Sudan to Massachusetts, where he lived until he was seven, was then taken by a guardian to Aswan, Egypt and then back to the Sudan where his "grandfather" As Sayyid Abdur Rahman al-Mahdi recognized him as the one possessing "the light." He returned to the U.S. and attended high school in Teaneck, New Jersey. Isa claims that after high school he attended universities in Egypt and the Sudan, but detractors say that he was in prison, not Africa.
      During the 1960s and 70s, Isa became aware of both Moorish Science and the Nation of Islam, and his mentor was Shaikh Daoud of the State Street Mosque in Brooklyn. In 1967 he organized his first Muslim group, the "Ansaar Pure Sufi,'" whose symbol was: a crescent containing a Star of David with an Egyptian ankh inside. Though critics say that the Star of David was used to attract members of Black Jewish sects, Isa's explanation is that its six points represent the six prophets -- Adam, Noah, Abraham, Ismael, Moses and Jesus, all of whom were black. In contrast, he says, the five-pointed star of the orthodox Muslims is an inverted symbol of Satan.
      Isa soon changed the mime of the group to the "Nubians." The members had originally been asked to wear green and black, but now they were to wear long African robes. In 1969, in line with his fast changing theology, Isa changed the group's name again, to the "Nubian Islamic Hebrews" and added the mahdist crescent and spear to their symbol. The costume became more elaborate as well: they were now asked to wear a dashiki, a black fez, and a small bone in the left ear.
      The Nubian Islamic Hebrews were officially founded as a sect in 1970. Communal living was established, males and females living separately from each other and from their children. During the early 70s Isa purchased the building on Bushwick Avenue in Brooklyn which would become their headquarters. He also began publishing their now massive supply of tracts, pamphlets, books, posters, newspapers and journals.
      In 1973 Isa traveled to Egypt and the Sudan. By the banks of the Nile he met a teacher -- the teacher of Moses no less -- known by Islamic mystics as al-Khidr, or "The Green One." The teachings of al-Khidr have since guided Isa in his understanding of the Koran.
      When Isa returned from his journey abroad, he changed the sect's name to the "Ansaaru Allah Community," which translates as "helpers of Allah." It was at this time that he began to say that he was the great-grandson of Muhammad Ahmad, the mahdi of Sudan. He had forged links with the Sudan, his new homeland, and the Sudanese, his new ancestors. During the late 70s, grandsons of the mahdis of Sudan did, in fact, visit the Ansaars' Brooklyn mosque; Sudanese students came as well, to assist the Ansaars with Arabic and the Koran. The official garb worn by Ansaar males was changed again, to white pants, robe and cap. with the mahdist symbol of spear and crescent between two pyramids on the cap. It was also in the late 70s that Isa, going by the name "'Dr. York,'' was lead singer in a band called "Passion."
      In 1981 Isa returned to Egypt to study the ancient monuments and temples. When he returned he announced that he had discovered the truth about the ancient Egyptians, which has been cleverly concealed by the devil for thousands of years. The Egyptians were, in fact, not only black, but they were also Muslims, the direct ancestors of the Nubians. "We refer to ourselves as Nubians," he writes, "knowing our origin comes from across the pyramids. ... The ancient Mizraimites [Egyptians] did not worship many gods -- they were Muslims! The devil has also interpreted the hieroglyphics to be a language. Hieroglyphics, is an an form, not a spoken language. They are the means by which we are able to understand the customs of this great Muslim society."
      Isa's genealogical claims were becoming increasingly grandiose. By 1988 he had traced his descent via Husayn, Muhammad's grandson, to Muhammad himself. Isa now felt that he was in a position to criticize Moorish Science and Nation of Islam as inauthentic versions of Islam. He pointed out that Noble Drew Ali's Circle 7 Koran is a motley blend of plagiarized material, and that neither Noble Drew Ali nor Elijah Muhammad are true prophets of Allah. Isa however, is the divinely inspired, one true Koranic oracle. His hundreds of books, pamphlets and recordings are not his own doing, but the result of Allah speaking through him.
      Isa also began to see himself as the savior of all Muslims: "It is my job as the reformer," he wrote, "to reform Islam and re-institute it in its pristine purity; not only here in the West but also in the East, where it is needed. Despite the fact that the people of the East were raised speaking Arabic, and were thus able to read the Koran, they still do not understand it, nor its relationship to the Old and New Testaments." In fact, the "so-called Arabs," sent to the West to confuse Nubians, deliberately mistranslated some verses of the Quran in order to conceal the damnation of all blue-eyed criminals to Hell. Islam as practiced by pale Arabs -- agents of Satan -- he says, is racist. Furthermore, the Muslim World League is a communist organization.
      Isa's inflammatory literature, as well the Ansaar lifestyle did not go unnoticed by the Muslim world. In 1988, a Jamaican convert to Sunni Islam, Abu Ameenah Bilal Philips, published an expose entitled "The Ansaar Cult," denouncing Isa Muhammad's sect as a perversion of orthodox Islam. In response. Isa published "The Ansaar Cult: Rebuttal to the Slanderers," which denounces Sunni Islam and defends the Ansaaru Allah Community as living out the one true interpretation of Islam.
      Philips and former members charge that the Ansaars live in isolation, not as true Muslims, but as a cult. Men are required to bring in money through begging, and those who fail to bring in the required amount are punished. Isa's reply is that "to beg donations for the upiiftment of Islaam" is in accord with Islamic law. Former members have also revealed some strange practices with regard to sex. Manned couples, who live separately, are allowed to engage in sex only in "the green room," and must sign up for it in advance. Those whom Isa chooses to punish, for any reason, are denied access altogether. Isa's defense is that "The green room was the only alternative that we had to keep certain people who didn't have sexual control from going totally berserk and that was their doing, not mine.''
      The role of women in the Ansaaru Allah Community is characteristically Muslim. Though men and women are "'equal," Isa says that according to the Koran, women do not have their own spirits. Women are expected to fulfill their traditional roles as wives and mothers, avoiding appearance in public, except for business. When they do go out, they are required to wear loose clothing which covers every inch of their bodies, except hands and feet; a full face veil must also be worn, with only a slit for the eyes; their gaze should be lowered, and they must walk "decently." A woman should neither enjoy herself, laugh, talk loudly, nor eat in public; in short, she should be invisible.
      Most of the Ansaar publications look as Middle Eastern as their clothing, but on closer scrutiny reveal adherence to Judeo-Chrisiian and Western symbols as well. The Seven-Headed Beast of the Apocalypse, for example, bursts from the cover of a 400-page "pamphlet" entitled Leviathan 666. Pop culture icons illustrate a 300-page diatribe, "The Paleman," which details the inferiority and evil rapacity of the while devils.
      It is only by reading these rants that one can truly appreciate the mind of the man who describes himself as "The Son of Man," who raised us up from the "Mentally Dead" to "Life Everlasting." His works show that he has incorporated not only the works of Elijah Muhammad and Noble Drew Ali in his writings, but also the classic conspiracy books authored by white supremacists.
      lsa apparently believes in the literal truth of fiction, movies and even tabloid articles, such as "Woman Gives Birth to 14-lb. Dog Baby." These are presented as evidence that, the International Bankers. Freemasons. Jews, the Pope and the Media are all part of The Conspiracy to cover up the superiority of Allah's chosen, the Nubians. Even the UFO and Hollow Earth literature, including the Shaver Mystery, are presented as fact.
      lsa's conspiratorial potpourri is juxtaposed with sermons about building a Nubian nation. "Our land is Sudan," he writes, "which is the original name for what is called Africa today. We are Nubians. We are the Israelites, the Ishmaelites and the Midianites..." In order for this nation to materialize, lsa must clear the way for the Messiah by converting 144,000 Nubian souls:

      "We call ourselves Arsaarullah because we consider ourselves the Nasrullah or the Ansaarul-lah mentioned in Al Qur'aan 61:14 when they use the word as Jesus' disciples. We consider ourselves the HAWAARIYUWNA, those gowned in white robes who will raise the 144,000 and we will be with the Messiah Jesus on the final day. WE ARE MUSLIMS FOR CHRIST."

      The real Black-Skinned Christ however, should not be confused with the Pale Jew Jebusite Christ worshipped by Christians, specifically, THE DEVIL, who, along with a race of fallen angels have incarnated on Earth in human form. This pale-skinned race is the cursed seed of Canaan, THE CAUCASIANS. "They have spread all over the planet Earth," lsa writes, "and are in contact with Evil U.F.O.'S they call God. They worship the image of the beast, a pale Jew, the picture of your pale Jesus Christ."
      Though the true story of how the White Race came to be can be found in many of Isa's books. The Paleman is devoted exclusively to this topic. Elijah Muhammad's version of the white devil story, Isa points out, is incorrect.
      Now. Isa's version, which begins with a story from the Old Testament:
      In the beginning ... everybody was Black, or rather. Nubian. Until one day Noah accidentally got drunk on the wine from his vineyards, undressed and retired to his tent, naked. His son Ham walked by, in a rather weak state, after an argument with his wife. The Devi! then took the opportunity to possess Ham's body, causing Ham to mock Noah's nakedness, and then look at him with the thought of sodomy. Sodomy, even the thought of Sodomy was a sin, so Allah cursed Ham's yet-to-be-born fourth son Canaan. This curse on Canaan was the curse of Leprosy, Isa continues:

      "Because Canaan was an albino, he lacked the normal eye coloring which caused his eyes to weaken and become sensitive to direct and indirect sunlight. So Canaan ... sought refuge in the mountains where the light was dim. The cold climate of the mountains was also conducive to [his] leprous condition because it stopped the leprosy from spreading. Canaan's descenders were the original cavemen.
      When they fled to the mountains, Canaan and his wife began reproducing and remained there for 309 years, with their progeny ... After that time, ALLAH sent the Prophet Abraham to clean them up. This is why the so-called Jews (cursed Jebusites of Canaan) called the Prophet Abraham their father.
      ... In time, they descended to the level of animals, eating raw carcasses, walking on all fours and mingling freely with the animals, mainly dog­like animals.
      Once the salts in their bodies reached a dangerous low, they lost their ability to reproduce. It was at this point that the lepers went down from the mountains, kidnapped and raped clean Nubian women. The mixture produced an offspring with black skin and straight, black hair. ...
      The lepers that did not mix (predominately the women} were pushed further back up the mountains and fell so low as to mate with the dog-like animals. The result of this mixture were ape-like animals. They had sexual intercourse with the jackal (the original dog) and through this intercourse the offspring that was brought forth was an ape-like man. They loved the dog so much that they turned his name around to worship it, DOG = GOD. The phrase "A Dog is Man's Best Friend,'" came out of this situation. The dog would lick the festered sores of the leper and clean the sores for them".


      It is only the cursed Paleman who is descended from apes:

      "Today, the Paleman would admit proudly, in firm agreement with Darwin's "Theory of Evolution" that man, meaning himself, mankind, emerged by a process called evolution from the ape when in reality, the ape is an alien. Correctly, if he was to go back in time a couple of thousand years, he would indeed encounter these ape-like animals that are partly responsible for his emergence as far as race."

     If you're Asian or Native American, don't think you're off the hook. Your race is also the result a curse: the "Curse of Esau."

      "The dragon represents the Edomites, the people of the "rising sun," the curse placed on Esau (father of the Edomites) can be seen through their slanted eyes. When ALLAH places a curse on someone (the Edomite race), it appears in the genes of man. ..."
      One clear example of the curse placed on Esau by ALLAH is the disease known as ''Mongolism" (Down Syndrome). Now ask yourself why it is that any mongoloid or retarded child born to any race always has the same appearance, they look Asian. They are always born with slanted eyes, broad heads, large tongues, no matter what race their parents are from. How can this be possible? The answer is very simple. As we previously stated, when ALLAH places a curse on people, HE places the curse in their genes."


     The Paleman is inferior and evil, and perhaps, the "Edomites" arc merely inferior. But, the jews and the Jesuits are worst of all. Isa identifies the Jews as the cursed "Jebusites." and "Khazars." The jews are responsible for everything from Christianity to the Bolshevik Revolution. The Jesuits, on the other hand, are responsible for both world wars and wrote Mein Kampf for Hitler.
      The conspiracy involves not only the International Bankers, the Pope, the Zionists, and Communists, but also Geraldo Rivera;

      "Many of you do not know, there are Jews in the entertainment world who are disguising themselves as being other than Jews. For example; the well-known newscaster Geraldo Rivera is in reality a Jew (Jebusite). Recently, his Jewish identity was revealed to the public in a popular magazine. He had a six-pointed star tattooed on his left hand when he was a child and is now being denied the right to be buried in a Jewish cemetery ground. According to the Jewish faith, tattoos are forbidden.
      Yet, he did not think of this as he passed himself off as an Hispanic. I have been telling you he was a Jew for years. Geraldo Rivera is his stage name, his real name is Jerry Rivers. ..."


      Isa delivers the big news that movie stars such as Tony Curtis, Woody Allen and Shelley Winters are Jewish, listed alongside Pope John Paul II as hiding their true identities.
      Some of Isa's ideas are borrowed from such publications as America's Promise, an Anglo-Israelite periodical, portions of which are reprinted in Leviathan 666. Isa's compendium of the coming apocalypse, His accounts of our checkless cashless computerized society run by Mark of the Beast hand-scan machines and barcodes closely resembles the literature of millennialists such as Mary Stuart Relfe and Ron J. Steele. Isa reveals a plot, however, far more insidious than those uncovered by his pale colleagues.
      According to Isa, Satan was born on earth as a human being in the year 1966. The Devil gave birth at that time to 13 children all over the world, one of them in New York City. This fact was "camouflaged" in a series of movies, the first of which was Rosemary's Baby. Everything that happens in this movie is, according to Isa, historical truth. Rosemary was not a fictitious character, Isa writes. "She was a real Amorite. The name Rosemary (Satan's mother.) was chosen because it symbolizes the ancestral background of the physical Devil, the Amorites."
      But Satan will be defeated in the end, as prophesied in the Book of Revelation. According to Isa's interpretation, the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse represent the Babylonian, Persian, Roman and European/US empires respectively, who all oppose Allah.

      "The Amorite, on account of his leprosy is pale and deteriorating with blue eyes and blond hair. ... The International Trade Center, Wall Street and the Empire State Building are going to be the first to be overturned. They are the heart, capital and economy of NEW BABYLON. ... America. All are located in New York City: THE EMPIRE STATE."

      In the year 1998, World War III and the reign of the Anti-Christ will begin.

      "The Anti-Christ will rise in the Arab World. He will not come out of the Christian world. Politically, in the early 1990's A.D., Arab supremacy will dominate the world. It will be achieved by the final Anti-Christ, the one to come out of the Arab World. He will be of Moorish/Mongolian extraction and will come to power in 1994 A.D. His victories will begin with the conquest of Europe, beginning with Italy. Europe will be attacked by land, air and sea. Rome the seat of Christianity, will be among the First places to be destroyed and Christianity will be wiped out by a universal brotherhood of Muslim nations.
      This will be the beginning of the Third World War, which will last For almost twenty-seven years. ...As the Arab world launches three set of six missiles, three will be intercepted and three will penetrate. As a result, New York and the entire Eastern Seaboard of the United States will be completely destroyed. ..."


      America the Beast will crumble to the ground, "broken into pieces by the GREATEST KINGDOM. THE KINGDOM of ALLAH." Isa will then open the seventh seal, and the 144,000 Nubians will ascend Mount Zion.

RASTAFARIANS

      Some Black Jewish sects believe that blacks are descended from the Hebrews, and others that Haile Selassie was secretly a Jew, but Rastafarians go even further. They believe that Selassie, a.k.a. Ras Tafari, a.k.a. His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I, King of
Kings, Lord of Lords, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Elect of God, Emperor of Ethiopia, is the Black Man's Messiah.
      Haile Selassie (1892-1975), bom Tafari Makonen, claimed, in the Ethiopian royal tradition, a descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, and that his eventual position as Emperor was divinely sanctioned. He did not, however, see himself as any kind of Messiah, despite his Jamaican fans' contention that he is God, or Jah.
      Given that Haile Selassie was a devout member of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, Emperor and spiritual figurehead of a Christian nation, it is hard to imagine why he would be selected as the Messiah of this group which views Christianity as a tool of the white oppressor. Consistency and rationality, are not, however, necessarv to religion, least of all, messianic religion.
      But prophecy is. During the 1920s, Marcus Garvey, the Jamaican "Back to Africa" leader, declared, "Look to Africa, where a black king shall be crowned, for the day of deliverance is here." Haile Selassie was crowned emperor in 1930, and soon after, in Jamaica, the Rastafarians were born. The fulfillment of Garvey's prophecy, supplemented by the usual panoply of biblical quotes, became the basis for this new Jamaican messianic movement.
      In the early days of the movement, while Ras Tafari was still in this world, the Rastafarians believed that he would literally rescue them from their oppression, and take them "back" to Ethiopia. Reverend Howell, one of the movement's founders urged his followers to sell 5000 photographs of the Emperor as passports to Ethiopia. This dubious enterprise landed Howell in jail.
      Apparently; the lesson was lost, for in 1959, Rev. Claudius Henry, calling himself a modern Moses, told the Rastafarians that he'd lead them back to the promised land with "Repatriation Cards," upon which were printed: "Pioneering Israel's scattered children of African origin 'Back home to Africa.' This year, 1959, deadline date October 5th: This new government is God's righteous kingdom of peace on Earth. 'Creation's second birth',.. Please reserve this certificate for removal. No passport will be necessary for those returning to Africa."
      On the appointed day, thousands of believers showed up for their repatriation, having sold their homes and material possessions. Suffice to say, the Jamaicans were not shuttled back to Africa as promised. But the unfulfilled prophecy only served to strengthen the faith of the believers. What would it matter if repatriation was delayed? One day soon. Blacks will rule the world, after Babylon destroys itself in a nuclear holocaust.
      Yet another disappointment, or what you might think was a disappointment, occurred in 1966 when Haile Selassie, Jah himself, visited Jamaica. Upon his arrival, thousands of Rastafarians fell before him as he attempted to exit his airplane. Alarmed by his devotees, Selassie stepped back into the plane, shut the door and refused to come out for an hour. He finally indulged his worshippers with a speech urging the prostrate horde not to seek repatriation in Ethiopia until liberating the people of Jamaica. The Rastafarians made Selassie's directive the basis of their new ideology.
      The Rastafarians have shown themselves flexible when confronted with various disappointed hopes, changing ideology to fit the new situation. Their biggest test, the death of their Messiah in 1975, preceded the sect's international impact with reggae, dreadlocks and the sacred herb. They are very much alive, and, to them, Ras Tafari is very much alive too. He is in the "Spiritual Body" now.

HEBREW ISRAELITES

      Certain Black Jewish sects have talked about returning to the Promised Land, be it Ethiopia or Palestine. The Hebrew Israelites actually made it there. The Promised Land for this group, members of the Abeta Israel Hebrew Center, is the more traditional chosen land of Israel. Thirty-nine of them emigrated there in 1969 from the South Side of Chicago, by way of Liberia, and more were soon to follow. This was a fulfillment of divine prophecy, which also scheduled Armageddon for 1977.
      The Hebrew Israelites were admitted to Israel under the "Law of Return" which allows, the emigration of all officially approved Jews back to the homeland. The Hebrew Israelites don't really think of themselves as 'Jews" however, for Judaism is only a religion, while Hebrew Israelite is a nationality.
      After settling in Dimona, the Hebrew-Israelites began to assert that only they were the authentic Hebrew people, and that the Jews were frauds, part of the International Conspiracy to conceal the true identity of the Hebrew Israelites as God's Chosen People. Hebrew Israelite eschatology holds that the Jews, along with the remainder of the sect's enemies, will be destroyed in the battle of Armageddon. This didn't sit too well with Israeli authorities, who determined that the Hebrew Israelites were not Jews, and could legally be expelled from Israel. However, as of May, 1992, they had not yet been deported; the group, which grew to one thousand, is reported to be currently enjoying cordial relations with the Israeli government.
      The group had first come together in the early 1960s when Gerson Parker, a.k.a. Nasi Hashalom, and Louis Bryant, a.k.a. Nasi Shaliach Ben Yehuda had. been separately preaching Black Judaism. They met in 1964, and soon developed a partnership based on their mutual belief in Black Zionism, which, distinguished them from the other Black Jewish cults at that time. Fluent in Hebrew, Nasi Hashalom became spokesman as well as the "Prince of Peace" (Messiah). He answers to a number of different names, corresponding with his various divine incarnations.
      The question remains, as always, Who exactly are the Chosen People? In the case of the various groups of black Jews, the answer could be just the members of a particular group of believers, or all African-Americans, or all those of black African descent. The Hebrew Israelites have solved the quandary by singling out those descended from American slaves, whether they know their special status or not:

      

      "We said that the children of Israel came through Jacob. We got the Edomiles that came through Essau, the Hittites, the Jebusites, all those people were Canaanites from Canaan. There were many tribes that made up Canaan's people. Israelites were another distinct group of people. All of these [other] people were black people, are people of color. But the Israelites were a distinct group from within the world of color...
      The slaves that reached the final form of physical slavery in America were truly the Hebrew Israelites. The others were dropped in the isles of the Sea: Haiti, Cuba, Jamaica... The true Israelites were brought on to America to fulfill a prophetic utterance of the sages of old so that it would be beyond a shadow of a doubt that they were the people. ... The prophecy... is in [Deut. 28],... when he alludes to the cursings and blessings that would befall the nation of Israel if they did not adhere to the divine laws of our Father. ... [Moses said]: 'thy sons and daughters would be taken to a far land, and again you shall go into Egypt but this time by ships and there you will be sold as bondsmen and bondswomen and now man shall buy you.'"


      Nasi Hashalom explains European domination and American slavery as Gods curse upon the Hebrews:

      "Ancient Israel fell because of nonadherence to written law... As a nation the preachment has always been here. But we couldn't come together as a nation because the curse was upon us. At the end of the final chastisement in 1863, but the bondage really stopped in 1845, that was the end of the 400-year period... 1445... In order for the chosen people never to be duped, taken in by idolatry or follow false doctrines or gods again, they had to be in the place where every imaginable form of idolatry would be practiced and the highest technological society would be practiced, the highest intelligence would be produced so that they would know all things. You see our brothers on the continent of Africa are still being duped by the Europeans; they are still convinced that modern technology is the salvation for their people, where we know that cigarette smoking, whiskey drinking, still-producing plants, plastics, "corning ware," all these so-called modern trinkets are the things that are killing man. We know that, but they don't know that yet. That's why we had to be placed in America so that we could never be taken in again by the trinkets that once deceived us..."

      Justice will prevail in the end, however:

      "So when the great battle comes it will be that the devil manifests himself through his wicked interventions, airplanes, tanks and what-nots, and the almighty God fighting back the devil through his power, divine power. This is going to happen in the very near future. What is happening is that the great battle, sometimes called Armageddon is shaping up. After this great battle, finally Gentiles are going to see that we are the people of the almighty God..."

NATION OF YAHWEH

      Ideologically almost identical to the Hebrew Israelites, though much more successful in terms of numbers and wealth, are the Nation of Yahweh. The "Yahwehs'' were founded in the late 1970s by Hulon Mitchell, Jr., a.k.a. Yahweh Ben Yahweh, or The Son of God. Mitchell had been a leader in Nation of Islam before creating his own sect and becoming the Son of God, deliverer of the Black Race. The Yahwehs, like the Hebrew Israelites, believe that Blacks are the Lost Tribes of Israel, and will soon be returning to Israel. They are meanwhile biding their time in Miami, sending their children to "Yahweh University" and making money for their "Temple of Love" to fill up those long days before deliverance.
      Their beliefs are summed up in a flyer entitled, "Who are the Followers of Yahweh?":

      "The followers of OUR GREAT GOOD AND TERRIBLE BLACK GOD YAHWEH are HEBREW ISRAELITES of the NATION OF ISRAEL. The so-called black people of America are the true FOLLOWERS of YAHWEH, of THE TRIBE OF JUDAH, chosen to be the chief ruler for ever (I Chronicles 28:4; 5:2). The so-called black people of America are a Holy people unto YAHWEH your God: your God YAHWEH has chosen you to be a special people unto himself, above all people that are upon the face of the earth [Deuteronomy 7:6). ...
      YAHWEH BEN YAHWEH is here among us doing the work necessary to save and preserve us from destruction along with the white man. ...
A FOLLOWER OF YAHWEH serves the so-called black people of America, who are HEIRS to NEW JERUSALEM. He is always busy taking the necessary legal steps for putting the so-called black people of America in possession of their rightful property, THE PROMISED HOLY LAND, ISRAEL ...
      Our people are beginning to follow YAHWEH all across America. As you begin to follow OUR GREAT GOOD AND TERRIBLE BLACK GOD YAHWEH you will discover how good and pleasant it is for BRETHREN TO DWELL TOGETHER IN UNITY (Psalm 133:1).
      HURRY TO YAHWEH NOW ! !
      OUR MOTTO IS: ONE GOD! ONE MIND! ONE LOVE! ONE ACTION!

      Like the white Anglo-Israelite groups such as "Kingdom of Yahweh,'' the Yahwehs place great importance on correctly identifying the creator's name:

     "NAME IS ALL IMPORTANT! THE NAME IS MORE THAN AN ARTIFICIAL TAG WHICH DISTINGUISHES ONE PERSON FROM ANOTHER. THE NAME HAS A MYSTERIOUS IDENTITY WITH ITS BEARER; IT CAN BE CONSIDERED AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE PERSON. KNOWLEDGE OF THE NAME GIVES CONTROL, AND UTTERANCE OF THE NAME IS EFFECTIVE EITHER UPON ITS BEARER OR AS CONTAINING THE POWER OF THE PERSON WHOSE NAME IS UTTERED...
      STRICTLY SPEAKING, YAHWEH IS THE ONLY NAME OF GOD. IN GENESIS, WHENEVER THE WORD NAME IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE DIVINE BEING, THAT NAME IS YAHWEH."


      Staying with us is "A Cultural Experience." In ancient times, there was a prayer for the stranger within our gates. Because this motel is a human institution to serve people, and not solely a money-making organization, we hope that YAHWEH will grant you peace and rest while you are under our roof." The three motels run by the Yahwehs, Yahweh Economy Inn, Yahweh Sun City Motel and Yahweh Resort Mote, advertise such luxuries as color TV, kitchenettes and swimming pools. One of the Yahwehs' latest hotel purchases is called, weirdly enough, the "Saxon Hotel." The group also owns beauty salons, food markets, real estate and boutiques. In 'The Exciting World of Yahweh," we find Yahweh businesses named "Celestial Landscaping" "Gabriel Upholstery" and "Yahweh Creative Printing." They have branched out from Miami, as well and own Chicken King Supreme in Atlanta, despite the fact that the Yahwehs themselves are vegetarians.
      The Yahwehs project wealth and prosperity. Yahweh Ben Yahweh won praise from various public officials, including the mayor of Miami, for transforming decaying black slums into successful business districts. But on November 7, 1990, Yahweh Ben Yahweh, Son of God. was arrested by FBI agents, along with 15 of his followers. He was accused of sacrificial slayings in addition to racketeering charges. According to the Boston Globe:

      "The grand jury charged Yahweh, 55, and the codefendants with operating a continuing racketeering enterprise dealing in extortion and murder while masquerading as religious people.
      The indictment describes a series of ritualistic murders that Yahweh allegedly ordered. Five of the accused were identified as members of ''the Brotherhood."
     "In order to join the Brotherhood," the indictment states, "an individual had to murder a 'white devil' and bring a severed body part to Mitchell as proof ol the killing".


      The full charges included racketeering, conspiracy in 14 murders of white vagrants and disobedient disciples, two cases of attempted murder, as well as the burning of an entire block in Delray Beach, 50 miles north of Miami. This crisis prompted communiques from dutiful Yahwehs, calling themselves "The People For Truth." informing the Yahweh brethren on the persecution of their messiah. One flyer proclaimed that "U.S. Government Systematically Starves Yahweh Followers: Malnutrition Drives One Member Insane."
      The Yahweh 16 went on trial in January, 1992. After a long and confusing trial, the jury spent five days deliberating, finding Yahweh ben Yahweh and six of his followers guilty of conspiracy; they failed to reach a verdict on the racketeering charge. Yahweh ben Yah­weh was sentenced to eighteen years in prison and was fined $20,000. The judge in the trial commented. "From the evidence I heard, the crimes were so horrendous, so gross, that the 20-year maximum is simply not commensurate with the crimes." The son of the GREAT GOOD AND TERRIBLE. BLACK GOD YAHWEH will soon face trial for the actual murders.